is a hairstyle where the caput hair is allowed to grow to a considerable length. Exactly what constitutes long hair tin change from culture to culture, or even within cultures. For case, a woman with mentum-length hair in some cultures may be said to take curt pilus, while a man with the same length of pilus in some of the same cultures would be said to have long hair.
Males having short, cut pilus are in many cultures viewed as existence under society’due south control, such as while in the military or prison or every bit penalisation for a law-breaking. Long lustrous female hair is mostly rated attractive by both men and women across cultures.
The prevalence of trichophilia (hair partialism or fetishism) is 7% in the population, and very long pilus is a common subject of devotion in this group.
Humans, horses, orangutans and lions are among the few species that may abound their head hair or manes very long. Humans are believed to take lost their fur 2.5–3 million years ago equally hominids when transitioning from a forest habitat to the open savanna, every bit an effect of natural selection, since this development made it possible to run fast and hunt animals close to the equator without getting overheated. Head hair was an exception, which was a survival trait because it provides thermal insulation of the scalp from the dominicus, protects against ultraviolet radiations exposure (UV), and also provides cooling (when sweat evaporates from soaked hair).[v]
The power to grow straight hair has been observed amid Human being sapiens sub-groups in less sunny regions further away from the equator. Relative to kinked Afro-textured pilus, straight hair allows more than UV light to pass to the scalp (which is essential for the production of vitamin D, that is important for bone development).
Scientists too view the ability to grow very long pilus as a result of sexual option, since long and healthy hair is a sign of fertility and youth.
need quotation to verify
An evolutionary biology explanation for this attraction is that hair length and quality can act as a cue to youth and health, signifying a woman’due south reproductive potential.
As hair grows slowly, long pilus may reveal 2–3 years of a person’s health status, nutrition, age and reproductive fitness. Malnutrition, and deficiencies in minerals and vitamins due to starvation, cause loss of hair or changes in hair color (e.chiliad. dark hair turning reddish).[ix]
Anthropologists speculate that the functional significance of long head hair may be adornment, a past-product of secondary natural option one time other androgenic/somatic hair (body hair) had largely been lost. Another possibility is that long head hair is a result of Fisherian runaway sexual option, where long lustrous pilus is a visible mark for a healthy individual. For some groups or individuals, yet, short pilus is the selected trait.
By seven to nine months, infants can tell the sexes apart based on hair length, song pitch, and faces.
Means of life often viewed every bit more than rigid, such every bit soldiering and religious discipline, frequently accept explicit rules regarding hair length. For example, Buddhist monks shave their heads equally part of their guild of worship.
Similarly, religious men with long pilus include the Nazarites of the Hebrew Bible (Samson beingness a well-known case)
and the Sikhs.
Other cultures may view male long pilus negatively; historically, some acquisition groups take used the long hair of conquered people as a symbol of their imagined “otherness” or inferiority, as was the case with the Gaelic Irish nether English language rule and the Moors under Spanish rule in Medieval Spain.
East Asian cultures take traditionally associated unkempt hair in a woman with an irresponsible attitude, equally women in East Asia were expected to tie up their pilus in styles such as the ponytail, plait, or any bun, as a symbol of responsibility.[xiv]
The traditional connotation of “long hair” in English meant, roughly, someone artistically knowledgeable or wise, an aesthete.
As a descriptive term, it has been applied to Merovingians and classical music enthusiasts, as well as hippies and aesthetes.[xv]
A Japanese woman with long hair
An Italian woman with long hair
A Sri Lankan woman with long pilus
A Tibetan woman with very long hair
Manhattan woman with knee-length braided pilus
An Indian adult female with tied-upwards long hair
Pilus length is most oft measured (in centimeters or inches) from the line of the scalp on the forehead upwardly over the highest indicate of the skull to its termination, and sometimes from the crown, the latter resulting in 10 centimeter lower values in boilerplate.
In cosmetology, hair lengths are usually categorized according to the function of the body where the bulk of the longest hair terminates:
lower shoulderblade/mid-back level,
(extends to almost
buttock-length, i.e. upper thigh-length, where the legs encounter the buttocks),
Hair commonly takes about two years to achieve shoulder length,[xviii]
and about seven years to accomplish waist-length/hip-length, including occasional trims (approximately 80–90 cm (31–35 in) from forehead for near people).
Maximum hair length
The maximum hair length that is possible to reach is about 15 centimetres (v.nine in) in for infants (below the age of one), almost threescore centimetres (24 in) for children, and by and large 100 centimetres (39 in) for adults. Documentation for decrease of the maximum length with age cannot exist institute in the literature. Some individuals can attain excessive lengths. Lengths greater than 150 centimetres (59 in) are frequently observed in long pilus contests.[nineteen]
Xie Qiuping had the longest documented pilus in the world, measuring five.627 metres (eighteen ft 5.54 in) in May 2004.
The maximum terminal pilus length depends on the length of the anagen (menstruation of pilus growth) for the individual. Waist-length hair or longer is only possible to reach for people with long anagen. The anagen lasts between ii and 7 years, for some individuals even longer, and is followed by shorter catagen (transition) and telogen (resting) periods. At any given time, about 85% of pilus strands are in anagen.
The fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) gene affects the hair bicycle in mammals including humans; blocking FGF5 in the human scalp (by applying a herbal extract that blocked FGF5) extends the hair cycle, resulting in less hair fall and increased pilus growth.
Ancient Greece and Rome
In ancient Greece, long male hair was a symbol of wealth and power, while a shaven caput was appropriate for a slave. The ancient Greeks had several gods and heroes who wore their hair long, including Zeus, Achilles, Apollo, and Poseidon. Greek soldiers are said to accept worn their hair long in battle. Such warriors considered it a sign of aristocracy and are said to accept combed it openly to prove off. As well, in society to continue enemies from getting hold of it in boxing, they were known to cut the forepart brusque, but go out it long in the back, where it was more out of reach (mullet). A widely held alternative interpretation of the conventional belief is that they kept it long, and simply tied it dorsum in a style known as a ponytail in order to keep it out of their enemies’ attain. The ponytail method allowed warriors, who frequently traveled to battle with a minimal corporeality of equipment so that they could avoid excessively heavy loads over long marches, to continue their hair manageable with a modest slice of string to hold information technology in place and a pocketknife to cut the back to length with one piece. Around the 6th century, notwithstanding, the Greek men shifted to shorter hairstyles, with the exception of the Spartans. Women in the culture kept the longer way, which for them showed freedom, health, and wealth, every bit well as good beliefs.
With men, long pilus by this time was considered a sign of false pride.
Pliny the Elderberry in his
and Varro related that the Romans did non brainstorm to cutting their pilus short until barbers were introduced to Italian republic from Sicily by P. Ticinius Mena in 299 BC.
Women in Roman times valued long hair, ordinarily with a center part. Apart from in the earliest times, men’s hair was usually shorter than women’s, although other cultures of the fourth dimension, such every bit Greeks in the east, considered long hair to be typical of philosophers, who were thought to be too engrossed in learning to carp with hair.
Strictly in the province of Rome, however, the shorter hairstyle was especially popular.
When Julius Caesar conquered the Gauls, who favored long pilus, he ordered theirs to be cut brusk.
In the European eye ages, shorter hair often signified servitude and the peasantry, while long pilus was often attributed to freemen, every bit was the case with the Germanic Goths and Merovingians.[
The Gaelic Irish (both men and women)
took not bad pride in their long hair—for example, a person could exist heavily fined for cut a man’s hair short against his will.
When the Anglo-Normans and the English language colonized Republic of ireland, hair length came to signify 1’s allegiance. Irishmen who cutting their hair curt were deemed to be forsaking their Irish heritage. Likewise, English colonists who wore their hair long in the back were deemed to exist forsaking their role as English subjects and giving in to the Irish life. Thus, hair length was 1 of the most common ways of judging a true Englishman in this menstruum. Muslims in Christian areas were ordered to continue their hair short and parted, equally their longer fashion was considered rebellious and barbaric.[xxx]
The long hair tradition was widespread among English and French men in the 11th and 12th centuries, although information technology was considered acceptable for men to take shorter pilus, mainly considering of the endorsement of the Roman Catholic Church. The tradition was largely brought about by monarchs who rejected the shorter hairstyle, causing the people to follow. Wulfstan, a religious leader, worried that those with longer hair would fight like women, and exist unable to protect England from foreign invasion. Similar ideas can be found among later war machine leaders besides, such every bit those of the American Confederacy.
Knights and rulers would also sometimes cut or pull out their hair in order to show penitence and mourning, and a squire’southward hair was by and large worn shorter than a knight’southward. Married women who allow their hair flow out in public were frowned upon, as this was usually reserved for the unwed, although they were immune to allow it out in mourning, to show their distressed state. Through these centuries information technology was expected of Eastern Christians to wear long hair as well equally long beards, which was expected especially of clergy and monks.
In England, during the English Civil Wars of 1642 to 1651, male hair length was emblematic of the disputes between Cavaliers and Roundheads (Puritans). Cavaliers wore longer hair, and were less religious-minded, beingness thought of by the Roundheads every bit lecherous. The more than devout Roundheads typically had somewhat shorter hair.
Around this time, long hair in England besides came to be associated with adventurers who traveled to America and were familiar with the native culture there, short pilus was associated with less adventurous types.
Trends among women in 20th and 21st centuries
The 7 Sutherland Sisters were singing and showing off their famous flooring-length hair in a sideshow of Barnum & Bailey’due south from about 1882 to 1907.
Dutch woman with thigh-length pilus
Growing and wearing long hair was common amidst women in the Western earth until World War Ane.
Long female hair never ceased in western culture, though it was rare during the 1920s and 1930s.
In most electric current cultures, it is more typical for women to article of clothing long pilus than for men to practice so. An American study shows pregnant correlation between pilus length and age, which indicates that younger women tend to have longer hair than older women. A significant correlation was as well found between women’s pilus length and pilus quality. Moreover, hair quality was correlated with the women’southward perceived concrete health. Consistent with principles of evolutionary psychology, these results signal that hair length and quality can act as a cue to a woman’southward youth and wellness, signifying reproductive potential. The correlation betwixt the woman’s hair length and marital condition, or number of children, was yet not more than to be expected from the correlation between pilus length and age.
Trends amongst men in 20th and 21st centuries
During the 19th century male person hair lengths in Western cultures had varied widely; according to nationality, occupation, historic period, social status and passing fashion. However, prior to Earth War One beards had largely been replaced past moustaches and hair was most commonly cutting to a medium/brusk length. However, curt hair on men was introduced in Globe State of war One for soldiers. Slaves and defeated armies were often required to shave their heads. The trench warfare engaged in from 1914 to 1918 exposed men to flea and lice infestations, which prompted orders past the college command to cut pilus short, establishing a new armed forces tradition.
Beat poets during the 1950s wore longer hairstyles. By 1960, a small “beatnik” customs in Newquay, Cornwall, England (including a young Wizz Jones) had attracted the attention of their neighbors for growing their hair to a length past the shoulders, resulting in a goggle box interview with Alan Whicker on BBC television’s
The 1960s besides introduced The Beatles, who started a more than widespread longer hair trend. The social revolution of the 1960s led to a renaissance of unchecked hair growth,
and long pilus, especially on men, was worn as a political or countercultural symbol or protest and as a symbol of masculinity. This cultural symbol extended to several countries in the Americas, Western Europe, South Africa, and Australia.
The trend even spread to some Eastern Bloc countries, such as the
subculture of Czechoslovakia, which was met with discrimination past the regime, who saw it equally unwanted Western capitalistic influence. Specific long hairstyles such as dreadlocks have been office of counterculture movements seeking to define other culling cultures and lifestyles since this time.
Longer hair in general remained pop due to the youth rebellion throughout the liberal decade of the 1960s. The long hair trend grew with the spread of the hippie movement in the 1960s
and, in the 1970s, longer pilus styles would become the norm amidst men and women.
In the 1970s, the popularity of Jamaica’s reggae music and musician Bob Marley prompted interest in dreadlocks internationally. The anti-establishment philosophy of Rastafari, echoed in much of the reggae of the time, resonated with left-leaning youth of all ethnicities – particularly and primarily among African Americans and other Blacks, but among counterculture Whites too.
In the 1980s, the view of long pilus every bit a lonely signifier of political or counter-cultural identity was countered and parodied in films such as Rambo and many other militaristic heroes of media which challenged and so-contemporary views of tradition.
In the 2000s, longer hairstyles among men became popular among neopagans and stone enthusiasts;
for case, musicians in metal bands and their fans often wear long hair. Long pilus may be grown for the purpose of its being donated to an organization, such equally Locks of Love, that provides hairpieces to help those who can not have hair otherwise, such as those who are diagnosed with alopecia areata. Today long hair has gained even more popularity. Even among mainstream men it is socially adequate to have pilus reaching around the upper back. This could in office exist due to the “human being bun” tendency where men pull their shoulder length or longer pilus back into a topknot bun.[
Many Native American men wore long hair before the inflow of Western influences on their culture. (In Cherokee legends, for example, males said to be handsome were often described equally having “long hair most to the basis” or similar formulas.) Both men and women of these cultures take often struggled to maintain their tradition but have faced heavy opposition. Many consider it a sign of giving in to Western influences to have their pilus cut.
Early US settlers saw long-haired, native men as rebelling confronting their civilized society. Mount men and trappers who adopted the customs were likewise considered amoral, and often identified by their long hair.
Since the cultural movements of the Sixties and Seventies, even so, Native Americans accept felt less pressure level to have brusk pilus, as different movements have defended their cultural rights.
For example, several states have loosened prison regulations, assuasive Native Americans to wear long hair during incarceration, along with other cultural allowances.
There has been resistance to these changes, however, as long hair is sometimes used to hibernate drugs, equally well as to identify with a gang.
When African slaves were freed in America, they struggled to reach the social status of whites. Many former slaves tried to conform their hairstyles equally function of this struggle. Women, specially, felt pressure to make their hair straight, rather than keeping the tightly coiled style they had known.
However, during the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, African-Americans such equally Malcolm Ten advocated hairstyles such as Afros and dreadlocks, in order to embrace their race, and to return to West African roots.
Social pressures at the time were heavily influencing these Americans (women) to have, straight hair, like white people did.
This resulted in the Black is cute movement, wherein African Americans wore their long natural hair untreated and not modified. More than recently, pilus extensions have go widespread. Some scholars posit that in that location is continued pressure on black women to accept straight smooth pilus. Amelia Jones posits that dolls for children, such as Barbie dolls, add together to this pressure, citing as an example a new, black Barbie doll with straight hair. Blacks, she believes, should exist able to be themselves without feeling pressured to “tame” their hair.
Contemporary North America
“She, as a veil downwards to the slender waist,
|– John Milton’s clarification of Eve in
In 1972, information technology was estimated that 24% of American women wore shoulder length hair or longer (44% of women in ages 14 to 44), meaning slightly more than 12% of men and women birthday. Like frequency was constitute in 2001, when information technology was estimated that about 13% of the U.s.a. adult population, male as well as females, has hair shoulder-length or longer, nigh 2.4% have hair reaching to the lesser of the shoulder blades or longer, nearly 0.iii% accept hair waist length or longer, and only almost 0.017% accept hair buttocks-length or longer.
By extrapolating the above data and the number of hair length records, the number of people with shoulder-length hair or longer in the U.s. is estimated to be 27 million, those with waist-length hair roughly 900,000, those with buttocks-length hair to exist 40,000, with knee joint length hair to two,000 and with ankle length pilus to lxx.[sixteen]
Other information estimates that 2–3% of United states of america men take long hair, and an additional ii% have borderline long hair, leaving 95–96% with curt hair.
It has also been estimated that 24% of women take long pilus and 43% have medium length hair, leaving 33% with short pilus.
Given that men comprise 49.2% of the Usa population and women fifty.8%,[l]
the estimated breakup of pilus length by gender amongst Americans is 47% men with short hair, 22% women with medium hair, 17% women with short pilus, 12% women with long hair, one% men with long hair, and 1% men with medium hair.
Throughout much of Africa, afro-textured hair is the well-nigh frequent pilus form, except among the Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) speaking populations in North Africa and the Horn of Africa. In the latter regions, naturally long hair is instead more mutual.
In West African cultures, women with long hair were highly valued. Long, thick hair was seen as a sign of health, force, and adequacy to bear many children. In keeping with this general theme, women who were likewise young for union would shave a portion of their heads to signal so. This tradition, however, did not extend to every W African culture, equally several valued shorter hair.
Historically, East Asian cultures viewed long hair as a sign of youth and aesthetic beauty. Long hair is associated with private life and sexuality. East Asian cultures see long, unkempt hair in a adult female as a sign of sexual intent or a recent sexual encounter, as commonly their hair is tied upward.[xiv]
Lay Buddhists have long pilus, while Buddhist monks accept shaved heads.
Japanese woman combing her long hair. (Colour woodblock print from 1920 by Hashiguchi Goyō.)
Chinese orthodox Christian man from 1874
Nosu girls in China 1922.
In aboriginal China and Korea, hair was regarded every bit a precious legacy from parents. Most people would never cutting their hair later on they became adults, and cutting off one’southward hair was a penalty for pocket-sized crimes. Both men and women would coil upwards their hair and many hair-coiling styles were developed.
Beginning in 1619, the ethnic Manchu Qing dynasty forced all men in Red china to adopt the queue: a long complect down the back with the hair about the forehead completely shaved. Hair length and style became a life-or-death matter in 1645 equally the Manchu told them either their hair or their head would exist cutting. Nearly every Han rebel group began past shearing this pigtail (most especially in the case of the Taiping, who were known in Chinese equally the “Longhairs”), but the queue on penalty of death lasted until 1911, when the Chinese people cut their queues in unison at a time of rebellion. Americans at kickoff judged Chinese immigrant laborers to exist poor workers because their long pilus brought an clan with women.
Islamic and Christian missionaries amongst the Chinese were strong advocates of shorter male hair for their converts.
Around the Devastation of Four Olds menstruation in 1964, nigh anything seen as part of Traditional Chinese civilisation would lead to problems with the Communist Carmine Guards. Items that attracted dangerous attention if caught in the public included jewelry and long male hair.
These things were regarded every bit symbols of bourgeois lifestyle, that represented wealth. People had to avoid them or suffer serious consequences such as tortures and beatings by the guards.
More recently, long hair was ridiculed in China from Oct 1983 to Dec 1983, as part of the brusque and unsuccessful Anti-Spiritual Pollution Campaign.
Also, in Chinese aboriginal and modern poesy, long hair is a common symbol used by poets, for example Li Bai and Li Shangyin, to express their depression and sadness.
In Southeast Asia and Indonesia, male long hair was valued until the 17th century, when the surface area adopted exterior influences including Islam and Christianity. Invading cultures enforced shorter hairstyles on men as a sign of servitude, besides. They were also confused by the short hairstyles among women in sure areas, such as Thailand, and struggled to explain why women in the area had such short hair. They came upwards with several mythical stories, 1 of which involved a male monarch who found a long hair in his rice and, in a rage, demanded that all women keep their hair brusque.
In countries like India, especially rural parts, girls and immature women generally grow their hair very long, often reaching hip-length or thigh length hair. Long hair in India is considered an essential role of a woman.
In medieval Japan, heian men were not very interested in a woman’s physical beauty and rarely had an opportunity to meet information technology. The only physical attribute of interest was a woman’south hair, which had to be thick and longer than she was alpine.[
In organized religion
In the Old Attestation, the Nazirites would become for long periods of time without cutting their hair to show devotion to God.
Samson is i case; his force depended upon his refraining from cut his hair, described as worn in “seven locks”.
Strict Orthodox Judaism forbids men from cutting their sidelocks, simply other hair may be kept as desired. Pilus is not cut during a time of mourning. The Torah in Deuteronomy 14:1 prohibits removing pilus in mourning for the dead.
In the past, Bedouin Muslims often wore their pilus in long braids, but influences from the Western earth accept caused a change in attitudes. Bedouins are now less likely to have long hair.
Islamic countries in Due north Africa such as Egypt view long hair in men every bit modernist and in one case the Egyptian police viewed it as Satanic and a sign of an infidel.
Spanish rulers during the Medieval Period suspected long-haired males to be Moors or Moriscos, therefore long hair was forbidden since it was believed to exist a Moorish custom. However, modern North African men accept adopted Western short pilus.
Muslims regard the Prophet Muhammad every bit the best example to alive by, and attempt to emulate him whenever possible. The Islamic Prophet Muhammad reportedly in Sahih Muslim had pilus that “hung over his shoulders and earlobes”.
Sahih Bukhari, regarded the near authentic of hadith, also supports this using a prime example of the prophet Isa (Jesus).
The Prophet Muhammad has likewise described Jesus equally “having long hair reaching his ear lobes.”
Malik’s Muwatta 51.two.6 reported, Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Abu Qatada al-Ansari said to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, “I accept a lot of hair which comes downward to my shoulders, shall I rummage it?
The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Yes, and honour it.” Sometimes Abu Qatada oiled information technology twice in one 24-hour interval because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him. “Honour information technology.”
With regards to women, neither Qur’an nor Sunnah explicitly land that women cannot cut their hair. Hadith does mention that women should non imitate men, and vice versa, and hence many scholars on this assumption, decree that women should let their pilus grow longer than the hair of the Prophet, reaching beyond their shoulders, as hadith mentions that the Prophet had his hair between his shoulder and his earlobes. (He described Jesus’s pilus, which hung to his earlobes, as long.)
Even so, according to some hadiths regarding the rules of awrah, women are required to grow hair long, long enough that it would cover the breasts or as much awrah parts of the body when they’re being cached, because she lacks clothes and long pilus would exist used equally a covering instead.
Some Muslims are also opposed to men having long hair as it is also important in Islam to have clear differences (in advent) between sexes. Generally these cultures encourage women to have long hair and men to have short hair.
The Taliban in Afghanistan viewed long hair for men as a Western influence, and punished it by arrest and forced haircuts,
although this would be a direct contradiction of the sunnah of the Prophet. Similar measures have been taken past Islamists in Iraq.
In spite of this, several Taliban affiliated members of the Mehsud association are recognisable by their long hair.
The Saudi Islamist fighter Amir Khattab was also notable for his long hair. Dervishes of some Sufi orders, such equally the Kasnazani, often have long hair and whirl it around during rituals.
For Sikhs, Kesh is the exercise of allowing one’southward hair to abound naturally as a symbol of devotion to God and lack of worldliness.[xiii]
- Hair extensions
- Hair stick
- Lady Godiva
- Long hair fetishism, a form of
- Beard and haircut laws past country
- Let’s trim our pilus in accordance with the socialist lifestyle
- Long hair in Singapore
- Female long hair in art (Gallery at Wikimedia commons)
- Female long hair photos (Gallery at Wikimedia eatables)
- Male long hair in art (Gallery at Wikimedia eatables)
- Male long hair photos (Gallery at Wikimedia eatables)
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