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Like every other increase in the productiveness of labour, machinery is intended to cheapen commodities, and, by shortening that portion of the working-day, in which the labourer works for himself, to lengthen the other portion that he gives, without an equivalent, to the capitalist. In short, it is a Dery for producing surplus-value.
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Each detail machine supplies raw material to the machine next in order; and since they are all working at the same time, the product is always going through the various stages of its fabrication, and is also constantly in a state of transition, from one phase to another. In the London exhibition ofthere was an American machine for making paper cornets. We now proceed to consider the substitution of a more intensified labour for labour of more extensive duration, and the degree of the former. At the same time a change took place in the nature of relative surplus-value.
It is impossible, for instance, to squeeze as much surplus-value out of 2 as out of 24 labourers.
From the economic standpoint this explanation is worth nothing, because the historical element is wanting. As long as the labour spent on a machine, and consequently the portion of its value added to the product, remains smaller than the value added by the workman to the product with his tool, there is always a difference of labour saved in favour of the machine.
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For instance, the attendance on one day might be from 8 to 11 a. One of the most important problems, therefore, which the owner of a factory gymnadt to solve is to find out the maximum speed at which he can run, with a due regard to the above conditions.
Here and there, long before the period of manufacture, and also, to some extent, during that period, these implements pass over into machines, but without creating any revolution in the mode of production. In a system of machinery, not only is the framework of the machine consumed in common by its numerous operating implements, but the prime mover, together with a part of the transmitting mechanism, is consumed in common by the numerous operative machines.
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Just as a of tools, then, form the organs of a machine, so a of machines of one kind constitute the organs of the motive mechanism. But assuming that he is acting simply as a motor, that a machine has taken the place of his tool, it gymnzst evident that Drry can be replaced by natural forces. Thus, apart from the dearness of the machines made in this way, a circumstance that is ever present to the mind of the capitalist, the expansion of industries carried on by means of machinery, and the invasion by machinery of fresh branches of production, were dependent on the growth of a class of workmen, who, owing to the almost artistic nature of their employment, could increase their s only ib, and not by leaps and bounds.
As soon as tools had been converted from being manual implements of man into implements of a mechanical apparatus, of a machine, the motive mechanism also acquired an independent form, entirely emancipated from the restraints of human strength.
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In the paper industry generally, we may advantageously study in detail not only the distinctions between modes of production based on different means of production, but also the connexion of the social bodg of production with those modes: for the old German paper-making furnishes us with a sample of handicraft production; that of Holland in the 17th and of France in the 18th century with a sample of manufacturing in the strict sense; and that of modern England with a sample of automatic fabrication of this article.
Mathematicians and mechanicians, and in this they are followed by a few English economists, call a tool a simple machine, and a machine a complex tool.
The one arises from use, as coins wear away by circulating, the other from non-use, as a sword rusts when left in its scabbard. The factory system was therefore raised, in the natural course of things, on an inadequate foundation.
The same is the case with the steam-hammer mentioned above. It was, on the contrary, the invention of machines that made a revolution in the form of steam-engines necessary. Nevertheless he doubted the use of steam-engines in. When machinery is first introduced into an industry, new methods of reproducing it more cheaply follow blow upon blow,  and so do improvements, that not only affect individual parts ni details of the machine, but its entire build.
It is, in truth, monstrous, that a single one of our people should ever leave the factory! Hence nowhere do we find a more shameful squandering of human labour-power for the most despicable purposes than in England, the land of machinery.
The improvements in the steam-engine have increased the piston speed, and at the same time have made it possible, by means of a greater economy of power, to drive with the same or even a smaller consumption of coal more machinery with the same engine. But besides this, at a certain stage of its development, modern industry became technologically incompatible with the basis furnished for it by handicraft and Manufacture. This mechanical appliance replaces, not some particular tool, but the hand itself, which brd a given form by holding and guiding the cutting tool along the iron or other material operated upon.
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Machinery, like every other component of constant capital, creates no new value, but yields up its own value to the product that it serves to beget. Generally speaking, the mode of producing relative surplus-value consists in raising the productive power of the workman, so as to enable him to produce more ffmales a given time with the same expenditure of labour.
But assuming that he is acting simply as a motor, that a machine has taken the place of his tool, it is evident that he can be replaced by natural forces. Another explanation of the difference between tool and machine is that in the case of a tool, man is the motive power, while the motive power of a machine is something different from man, as, for instance, an animal, water, wind, and so on.
From being a dwarf implement of the human organism, it expands and multiplies into the implement of a mechanism created by man. The active lifetime of a machine is, however, clearly dependent on the length of the working-day, or on the duration of the daily labour-process multiplied by the of days for which the process is carried on. So soon as that shortening becomes compulsory, machinery becomes in the hands of capital the objective means, systematically employed for squeezing out more labour in a given time.
This is effected in two ways: by increasing the speed of the machinery, and by giving the workman more machinery to tent. If, on the one boddy, the workman becomes adapted to the process, on the other, the process was ly made suitable to the workman.
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The operating part of the boring machine is an immense drill driven by a steam-engine; without this machine, on the other hand, the cylinders of large steam-engines and of hydraulic presses could not be made. From the economic standpoint this explanation is worth nothing, because the historical element is wanting. The less value it gives up, so much the more productive it is, and so much the more its services approximate to those of natural forces. But the huge masses of iron that had now to be forged, to be welded, to be cut, to be bored, and to be shaped, demanded, on their part, cyclopean machines, for the construction of which the methods of the manufacturing period were utterly inadequate.
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